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**First of all welcome to www.job-updates.com and we are providing all job updates, jobs information, shortcuts or tricks on Aptitude(Number series, simplification, time and work, time and distance, time and speed), reasoning, General Knowledge, as well as current affairs.****Profit and Loss**

### Basic Definitions and Formulas

- Cost price (C.P.): Buying price.
- Selling price (S.P.): sales Price.
- Profit/Gain: If the selling price is more than the cost price, the difference between them is the profit occurred.

Formula: Profit/ Gain = S.P. – C.P.

- Loss: If the selling price is less than the cost price, the difference between them is the loss occurred.

Formula: Loss = Cost price (C.P.) – Selling Price (S.P.)

- Profit or Loss is always calculated on the cost price.
- Marked price: This is the price marked as the selling price on an article, also known as the listed price.
- Discount or Rebate: This is the reduction in price offered on the marked or listed price.

Below is the list of some basic formulas used in solving questions on profit and loss:

- Gain % = (Gain / CP) * 100
- Loss % = (Loss / CP) * 100
- SP = [(100 + Gain%) / 100] * CP
- SP = [(100 – Loss %) / 100]*CP

The above two formulas can be stated as,

If an article is sold at a gain of 10%, then SP = 110% of CP.

If an article is sold at a loss of 10%, then SP = 90% of CP.

- CP = [100 / (100 + Gain%)] * SP
- CP = [100 / (100 – Loss%)] * SP

## Profit and Loss: Solved Examples

Question 1: An article is purchased for Rs. 450 and sold for Rs. 500. Find the gain percent.

Solution:

Gain = SP – CP = 500 – 450 = 50.

Gain% = (50/450)*100 = 100/9 %

Question 2: A man sold a fan for Rs. 465. Find the cost price if he incurred a loss of 7%.

Solution:

CP = [100 / (100 – Loss %)] * SP

Therefore, the cost price of the fan = (100/93)*465 = Rs. 500

Question 3: In a transaction, the profit percentage is 80% of the cost. If the cost further increases by 20% but the selling price remains the same, how much is the decrease in profit percentage?

Solution:

Let us assume CP = Rs. 100.

Then Profit = Rs. 80 and selling price = Rs. 180.

The cost increases by 20% → New CP = Rs. 120, SP = Rs. 180.

Profit % = 60/120 * 100 = 50%.

Therefore, Profit decreases by 30%.

Question 4: A man bought some toys at the rate of 10 for Rs. 40 and sold them at 8 for Rs. 35. Find his gain or loss percent.

Solution:

Cost price of 10 toys = Rs. 40 → CP of 1 toy = Rs. 4.

Selling price of 8 toys = Rs. 35 → SP of 1 toy = Rs. 35/8

Therefore, Gain = 35/8 – 4 = 3/8.

Gain percent = (3/8)/4 * 100 = 9.375%

Question 5: The cost price of 10 pens is the same as the selling price of n pens. If there is a loss of 40%, approximately what is the value of n?

Solution:

Let the price of each pen be Re. 1.

Then the cost price of n pens is Rs. n and

the selling price of n pens is Rs. 10.

Loss = n-10.

Loss of 40% → (loss/CP)*100 = 40

Therefore, [(n-10)/n]*100 = 40 → n = 17 (approx)